Aliyev Heydar Alirza oglu (10.5.1923, Nakhchivan city – 12.12.2003, Klivland, US; was buried in the Honorary Avenue in Baki) – is one of the genious figures of the world history, the great politician and statesman of Azerbaijan. The national leader of the Azerbaijani people, the vanguard of the independence struggle (1990-1993). The founder of the New Azerbaijan Party (1992), the founder of the contemporary Azerbaijan government who is the historical inheritance of the Azerbaijan People’s Republic and President of the Azerbaijan Republic (1993-2003).

           After graduating from Nakhchivan Pedagogical School he studied in the faculty of architecture of the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute (today’s Azerbaijan State Oil Academy) in 1939-1941. Starting from 1941 he occupied the position of department chief in the Commissariat of the People’s Internal Affairs of Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Nakhchivan MSSR) and in the People’s Commissariat Soviet of Nakhchivan MSSR. In May 1994 he was sent to serve for the State Security Systems by the Nakhchivan Regional Party Committee, got a special high education in Leningrad (present Saint Petersburg) and was promoted from lieutenant to general rank. He graduated from the history faculty of the Azerbaijan State University in 1957. He was promoted to the position of the first deputy of the chairman of the Azerbaijan State Security Committee under the Cabinet of Ministers in 1964 and in 1967 he occupied the position of a chairman in the same system. During his activity in the Committee of the State Security the national leader contributed a lot for his nation in Azerbaijanising of the very important structure. He was elected the first secretary of the CC of the ACP in July (1969) plenum of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party (CC of the ACP) and member of bureau of the CC. Thus the first stage of our national leader’s leadership started in Azerbaijan. With his August (1969) speech in the plenum of the CC of the ACP he determined the new style of orientation of basical improvement of the leadership on national economy and cultural construction, strengthening state and labour disciplines, increasing the responsibility of the personnels. This style of leadership was improved in Heydar Aliyev’s next speeches and was grounded scientifically and was turned to a long term acting programme in stopping the negative inclinations creating problems to the morality of people in the economic-political life of the republic, in restoring a healthy moral-psychological atmosphere and in establishing a public mood. The respected Heydar Aliyev was elected  candidate to the Political Bureau of the CC of the CPSU in March 1976, and in November 1982 he was elected member of the Political Bureau, in the same time, he was appointed the first deputy of the chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). He demonstrated his noble acts, heroism and ability in the Soviet Union where the race, religion discrimination against the Turk-Moslem people was very intensive and even could occupy very high positions in such a Great Power.

    From the early years of Heydar Aliyev’s leadership in Azerbaijan a complete and perfect economic growth conception was prepared, the image and productivity of the traditional economic fields were restored, so many new enterprises were founded, the industrial base of economy was expanded and modernized. Within the period of Heydar Aliyev’s leadership in the republic (1969-1982) a lot of important things were done in the management mechanism and methodologies improvement, the idea of Azerbaijanism, national courage, national-moral selfness, the cultural highness, historical memory of people, improving independent stateship ideas on the basis of self background and its realization. The first half year of 1970-80 was the period of dynamic increase in the public-economic and social-cultural life of Azerbaijan, the foundation of the independent Azerbaijan was laid out.  A great turn toward the liberty began in the first period of Heydar Aliyev’s leadership (1969-82) in all spheres of the public-economic development and national-cultural revival of Azerbaijan. Even he always thought of Azerbaijan when being in Moscow, always thought of its fortune and used all opportunities given to him very resourcefully to make recognize Azerbaijan not only in the USSR but also all over the world.

    Heydar Aliyev was elected deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (8,9 and 10 summons), was a deputy chairman of the Union Soviet of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of the 9th summon, deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR (7,8,9 and 10 summons) and member of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the republic, he was awarded with the “Lenin” order (4 times), “Red Star” order and a lot of medals and twice Hero of the Socialist labour (1979, 1983). Heydar Aliyev paid official visits to Mexico, Germany, Viet-Nam, People’s Democratic Republic of Korea, Romania, Yugoslavia, Italy, Egypt, Syria and India as a head and member of the delegation of the CC of CPSU and Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1970-80 years. In October 1987 he protested the incorrect and antiazerbaijani policy pursued by the Political Bureau of the CC of CPSU and personally by M.S.Gorbachev, general secretary, went into retirement and became an opposition against the existing system. In connection with the bloodshed on January 20, 1990 in Baki committed by the Soviet troops, next day after the tragedy, Heydar  Aliyev in his statement in the representation of Azerbaijan in Moscow, though his health was serious and the Kremlin prosecuted him, condemned the use of weapons against the Azerbaijan people and went ahead of the Liberation struggle of the Azerbaijan people. He turned to Azerbaijan in July 1990 to escape his native nation from the national-political danger and started his Liberation struggle firstly in Baki and then in Nakhchivan and in the same year he was elected deputy to the parliaments of Azerbaijan and Nakhchivan. He was elected chairman of the New Azerbaijan Party in the institutional congress held in Nakhchivan in 1992. The Nakhchivan period of Heydar Aliyev’s political activity, especially the years he occupied the position of the Chairman of the Supreme Majlis of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (1991-1993) was the difficult period in its political, social-economy and cultural development but also was a very distinguished period for the other parameters. Heydar Aliyev, firstly, escaped Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic from the armed aggression and occupation of Armenia. During these years by the initiative of our national leader, the words “Soviet, socialist” were taken out from the name of the Supreme Majlis of the autonomous republic and the tricolor flag of the People’s Republic of Azerbaijan (1918-20) was received a state flag of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. Within those years the economic problems of the blockaded autonomous republic were paid great attention, economic relations were established with Turkey and Iran, the “Hope Bridge” joining Nakhchivan with Turkey and the Shahtakhti-Poldasht bridge which provides goods and passengers transport were constructed.

    In the speech of our national in the first session of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan Republic (February,1991) he declared that, he had come back to share the grief of our people in hard and difficult period of our country, to demonstrate his citizenship duty to his country, to join the struggle for independence and analyzing the existing public-political situation in the Soviet Union on going to fail and also in Azerbaijan objectively put forward the most important ideas making the people think of, expressed the most principal and concrete thoughts, put ahead proposals, declared his decisive position in solving political and economic crisis and about the conflict around Daghlig Garabagh said: “Sinful and guilty for the situation happened are the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Gorbachev who captured the party and the state power.”

    National leader who fought for the independence of his nation, when worked in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, always demonstrated very decisiveness in solving very important issues for the people of Azerbaijan and country indeed.  That time the activity of all structures of the Communist Party was canceled in Nakhchivan (by the decision of the Supreme Majlis of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic on 26 August, 1991), according to the decision of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan received on August 29, 1991, the presidential election appointed on September 8 in Azerbaijan was stopped in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (by the decision of the Supreme Majlis of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic received on September 4, 1991). As a result of his political experience and resolution the stability was provided in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and democratic state structure was formed. When the power crisis, anarchy reached the last extend in the May-June of 1993 in the republic, when the country faced with the danger of a civil war and on the threshold of losing its independence, the people of Azerbaijan stood in demand of Heydar Aliyev, national leader, to the power. This, in the best meaning of a word, turned to the national movement and as a result, Heydar Aliyev was elected chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan on June 15, 1993. That day was received in the history of the Azerbaijan people the day of Liberaton. The Liberation struggle headed by Heydar Aliyev won. By this, a second period of Heydar Aliyev, great figure’s leadership began in Azerbaijan. Distruction danger of the Azerbaijan stateship, civil war and separation of the country were lifted. Heydar Aliyev began to execute the authority of the Azerbaijan president by the decision of Milli Majlis from June 24. On October 3, 1993, by referendum, Heydar Aliyev was elected president of the Azerbaijan Republic. After his comeback to the Azerbaijan power a fundamental change happened in the public-political, social-economic, scientific-cultural life of the country and this change appeared in the international relations too and began the process of the independent state establishment according to the scientific basis, international norm and principles. The attempt to coup d-etat against the existence of the Azerbaijan stateship in October 1994 and in March 1995 was resisted and the state independence was defended, the attempt to the power by force was put an end, a strong public-political stability was established in the country. By this comeback, the foundation of a new ideology covering independence, Azerbaijanism, stateship, republicism, justice, democracy, juridical state establishment, national progress, worldliness and other national values were laid down in Azerbaijan. The foreign policy of the country, of which, the relations with leading countries and international organizations began to develop on the basis of national interests and farsighted political perspectives. The exceptional value to the foreign issues by the great leader, his decisive and successful steps in the international sphere that even is confessed by our enemies, his skillful and capable tribune maneuver for the sake of the national goals were very important for today’s and tomarrow’s of the Azerbaijan stateship. During these years very serious changes began in the field of the national army building. The uncontrollability of the aggressive Armenia armed forces in the territory of Azerbaijan was resisted and the cruel enemy was delivered anti blows and as a result on May 1994 a ceasefire was declared in the frontline as the first stage in solving the conflict of Armenia-Azerbaijan Daghlig Garabagh. As a result of the active diplomacy of a great political statesman the relations of the world democratic countries and the leading international organizations to Azerbaijan and to the armed conflicts that Azerbaijan was dragged by force, basically changed. In the Lissabon summit of the OSCE (1996) 53 members out of 54 of this international organization defended the principles in solving the problem of Daghlig Garabagh due to the national interests of Azerbaijan (excluding Armenia).

    The great son of Azerbaijan acted intensively in working out great volume international treaties and in the field of their implementation according to the national interests of our country. In September 1994 oil treaty called “Century’s contract” was signed in Baki. Hereafter, in connection with the carbohydrogen reserves exploration of the Caspian Sea 21 new treaties were signed and it gave an opportunity to raise the number of big companies from 15 till 33. All these are the strongest financial canals able to increase the economic system of the country and also it possesses a great importance in raising the image of Azerbaijan in the international sphere. As a result of the modest policy pursued by the great leader of Azerbaijan successful steps were taken in delivering the oil of Azerbaijan to the world markets and the popular “Baki-Supsa” pipeline and “Baki-Tiblisi-Ceyhan” main export pipeline were built and used. Azerbaijan played a leading role in implementing the international programme towarded to restore the Great Silk Road, the conference with the participitation of 32 countries and 14 international organizations was held in Baki, in September 1998 and the conference decided a decision that the executive secretary programme to be situated in Baki. The contribution of Heydar Aliyev in establishing the GUAM unity to which included Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova and in uniting the regional powers in such a geographical space is immense. In Washington meeting of the GUAM countries leaders in April 1999, Heydar Aliyev was elected chairman of the organization.                              

    In all-round and multi-pointed activity of the great leader, the economic reforms, establishing the market economy, lifting the economic crisis and providing the progress, the integration of Azerbaijan to the world economy, beginning the first rising inclination in the national economy, implementation of the privatization programme and agrar reforms, stopping the infliation, sustainability of the purchasing power of the manat were the prioritet fields. By pursuing the lasting policy in the fields of democracy, juridical and worldwide state structure, Heydar Aliyev established a fundamental base in establishing the key principles of the human rights and freedom in the country. The Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic possessing the world wide democratic values received in November 1995 by referendum and on the basis of it receiving the Constitution of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, holding a democratic parliament elections in 1995 and 2000 on the basis of multiparty principles, beginning the activity of the Constitutional Court, abolishing the death penalty punishment, receiving the law about the municipal elections and other decisions and their practical implementation are linked with the name of Heydar Aliyev, great statesman. Azerbaijan joined all kinds of international conventions and treaties related to the human rights and freedoms. The decision signed on February 22, 1998, by the leader of Azerbaijan “About providing the human rights and freedoms” gave great opportunities in urging the process of integration of the Azerbaijan Republic to the world and Europe, rose the provision of human rights and freedoms to the level of a state policy, in May 1995 the institution of pardoning was restored, thousands of prisoners were pardoned or passed the amnesty acts either fully or partially, in 1995-2003, Azerbaijan earned the status of “special guest” to the European Council, starting from June 1996 and from January 25, 2001 Azerbaijan became a full member of this organization.

    The base of the foreign policy of Heydar Aliyev, president of Azerbaijan, constituted the principles of peace, international juridical norms, respect the territorial integrity and inviolability and mutual productive collaboration. He also expressed his satisfaction in solving the Armenia-Azerbaijan, Upper Garabagh conflict peacefully, struggled systematically in this field and in case of not solving the problem by means of peace he decisively stated that Garabagh would be freed by force. The great leader who worked intensively in strengthening the economic, political, literary-cultural relations among the Turkish countries starting from 1992 he always participated actively in the top level meetings of the Turkish countries and succeeded in realization valuable measures for the sake of the Turkish people. Holding the 6th top level meeting of the Turkish countries leaders (April, 2000) in Baki and celebrating the 1300 jubilee of the epos “Kitabi-Dada-Gorgud” in the international level, in the same time are of great importance. Holding the both measures so highly and regarding them real holidays for all Turkish people, brought an image of influential personal to the leader of Azerbaijan of the contemporary Turkish world.   

    Heydar Aliyev was a great political statesman and also he was a master of history, philosophy, literature and art, protector of science and culture. Directly with his initiative and participation the jubilees of several literary, art and scientific figures were conducted, their activities were awarded with great state prizes and honourable names were given and monuments were erected to them. Appointment of merit stipends for the old craftsmen, talented young poets and writers, hopeful juveniles in different creative fields, is one of the examples of a great care of our national leader to the development of our culture.

    The process of shifting to the latin alphabet, extending the implementation of the national language, the decisions signed in 2001 to institute the day of the Azerbaijan alphabet and Azerbaijan language, the addresses to the Azerbaijan people to defend the national-moral values, providing the unity of alphabet and language among the Turkish peoples and states and his hard won activities in different fields brought a great fame to Mr. Heydar Aliyev.

    The people of Azerbaijan, the progressive international community celebrated the 75th, 80th and 85th anniversaries of Heydar Aliyev, national leader, highly. So many books, bookish-albums reflecting the titanic activity of our national leader for the independence and progress of Azerbaijan were published and films were shot. He also was awarded with the highest orders of different foreign countries, of which, the prize of the human rights and a man of the year of the state TUSIAB in 1997, “Silk Road Service Prize” (1998) instituted by the “Silk Road Fund”, International Ataturk Peace Prize (1999), honourable doctor of different countries’ universities and other prestaged honourable names and also he was awarded with the “Golden Star” (Gloria populiu), the supreme award of the International Reyting Organization for the development of intercountries relations, regulation of the regional relations and political stability in 2001.

    The day of death of Heydar Aliyev, one of the rare personals of the world, was the greatest grief day of the Azerbaijan people, the whole Turk-Islam world and progressive mankind. The great leader united millions of Azerbaijanis – his native nation, still pre his death. The name of our great leader was widely eternalized, the bust of Heydar Aliyev (1983) and his monument (2007) were erected in his birth place Nakhchivan city and in 1999 Heydar Aliyev museum was established. The gardens and parks, squares, spring-monument complexes, pannos were constructed in all regions, cities, big settlements and villages of the Azerbaijan Republic to remember Heydar Aliyev. The Institute of Political Sciences and International Relations named after Heydar Aliyev act in Kiev.

    In the schools and universities of Heydar Aliyev scientific-theoretical lectures, reports are heard and seminars are conducted. The order of “Heydar Aliyev” was instituted in honour of the national leader of the Azerbaijan people, the architecture and founder of the independent Azerbaijan state (April 22, 2005).


    Aliyev Ilham Heydar oglu (was born in Baki, on 24.12.1961). President of the Azerbaijan Republic (from 2003), great politician and statesman. Graduated from the Institute of Moscow State International Relations in 1982. He began his scientific-pedagogical activity there (1982) and was a post-graduate student, teacher. He worked a director-general of the “Orient” company in Moscow from 1991, from 1994 a vice-president for the foreign economic relations of the State Oil Company of the Azerbaijan Republic and the first vice-president from 1997, prime minister of the Azerbaijan Republic (2003). He was the nearest associate of Heydar Aliyev, national leader, in defending the stateship of Azerbaijan and establishing a new Azerbaijan.

    Ilham Aliyev took a very active part in preparing the oil strategy, the founder of which was Heydar Aliyev, in arriving at a great achievement and realization of this policy, in working out different projects in that field, in fulfilling very difficult tasks and played a great role in putting a foreign investment to the country. He has very great contributions in expanding economic and cultural relations of the independent Azerbaijan with foreign countries, especially in signing the historical treaties with the leading oil companies of the world about joint exploration of the oil-gas deposits, of which, in signing the agreement about Baki-Tiblisi-Ceyhan main exporting pipeline and its realization, in general, in the way of integration of the Azerbaijan Republic to the world.

    Ilham Aliyev who takes a very active part in the democratic, juridical and worldwide state establishment in Azerbaijan also is a prominent public figure. He is the leader of the New Azerbaijan Party (NAP), the leading political party of the country. Ilham Aliyev was elected  deputy of the party chairman in the I congress (2001) of the party (1999), but in the II congress (2001) the first deputy. Ilham Aliyev headed the election campaign of the NAP in the parliamentary elections in 2000. Just under his leadership the NAP got a magnificent victory and occupied the most seats in Milli Majlis.

    Ilham Aliyev demonstrated very high activeness when being the deputy of Milli Majlis. He regularly was among the people, learned their problems and systematically assisted his help to the category of people who were in need of social protection.

    Ilham Aliyev who was a member of the permanent commission of the International and interparliamentary relations of Milli Majlis and his activity as a leader of the permanent delegation of the Azerbaijan Parliament in OSCE is an example of service to his native nation. His expedient, decisive and courageous speeches in OSCE impacted to regain the fame of Azerbaijan greatly, too. Just thanks to the tireless activity, resolute speeches of Ilham Aliyev, the aggressive Armenians were exposed in the Council of Europe, the objective view was formed in the Western world about Daghlig Garabagh, inseperable part of Azerbaijan, about the puppet “Daghlig Garabagh problem”, the very conflict found its correct political value and very decisive steps were taken in the way of its solution. Ilham Aliyev rendered great services in making Armenia be recognized as an aggressive, occupant state in the Council of Europe, in providing the Armenian terrorism a part of the international terrorism, in delivering the matter of uncontrolled Daghlig Qarabagh turning to the narcotransit station and den of terror to the community of Europe and the world. His activity in the Council Europe, objective and constructive speeches in OSCE caused Ilham Aliyev earn a prestige among the Western politicians. He was elected a vice-speaker of OSCE and member of Bureau. (January,2003).

    Ilham Aliyev demonstrated an unexampled selflessness in realization Heydar Aliyev’s policy of youth. After being appointed president of the Azerbaijan Olympic Committee in 1997, Ilham Aliyev could demonstrate a very high organizing ability in a short period and the sport of Azerbaijan made progress and earned a worldwide fame. The bright successes that Azerbaijan sportsmen made in the international contests is the victory of the sport movement, above all, a great political victory which is headed by Ilham Aliyev.

    Ilham Aliyev as a broadminded statesman and politician, pursues the policy to turn the sport to the national movement in order to bring up a healthy youth and by this to provide the healthy future of our people. By his initiative the Olympic sport complexes were built and are under use not only in the capital city Baki but also in the regions of Azerbaijan as well. The establishment of rich material-technical bases to develop the different fields of sport is also a bright example of a wise policy forwarded to the healthy future of our nation.

    Ilham Aliyev who got a magnificent victory in the presidential elections in 2003, was elected President of the Azerbaijan Republic by the will of the Azerbaijan people. Ilham Aliyev, president of the Azerbaijan Republic, follows the democratic, juridical and world-wide state construction policy of Heydar Aliyev, the great son of the Azerbaijan people, successfully. Under his leadership the economic reforms in the country picked up too speed and by special presidential decree the State Programme on the social-economic development of the regions for 2004-08 years was received. The President of the country signed a decision “About celebration the 80th jubilee of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic” on February 9, 2004. The given autonomous status to Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic was appreciated very highly in the decision. Ilham Aliyev paid visits to Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (12-13.05.2004; 02.09.2004; 19-20.12.2005; 20-21.12.2006; 16.10.2007; and participated in the jubilee festivals. The visits of Ilham Aliyev to the aoutonomous republic gave a double impact to the all round development of this ancient land. Ilham Aliyev, president of the Azerbaijan Republic, always focuses to ensure the human rights and freedom in the country. He follows the course of Heydar Aliyev about defending the national-moral values and promotion of the Azerbaijan people successfully. His decisions “About publication of the Azerbaijan National Encyclopedia” and “Carrying out mass publications in Azerbaijan of the Latin graphic” (January 2004), his taking the personal responsibility about publication of the National Encyclopedia and the decisions signed in connection with this, additional salary to be paid the scientists for their degrees, repeatedly stipend rise of the students, master’s degree students and post graduates are magnificent examples of the state care to the national-moral and world wide values.

    As a result of resolute and expedient activity of Ilham Aliyev, president of Azerbaijan, very significant successes are on going in putting into practice the course of foreign policy of Heydar Aliyev, of which, in exposing the aggressive occupation position of the Armenian occupants in the international sphere. Ilham Aliyev, a broadminded person possessing a very deep and solid knowledge, a high culture earned a great respect and prestige as a contemporary and adroit politician in the world. He systematically stands in defence of the interests of Azerbaijan in the rapidly changed contemporary world, in the processes of globalism and integration, in all international meetings and also in the top level talks. Thanks to the fruitful foreign policy of Ilham Aliyev, the role and image of Azerbaijan gradually rise in solving the international and regional problems too. The president of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev was awarded with the honourable titles and awards of several countries and international organizations, he was awarded with the diploma of honorary member and medals of OSCE. Ilham Aliyev was awarded with the highest supreme prize of the Azerbaijan Republic “Heydar Aliyev” order which was instituted to the memory of Heydar Aliyev, the architecture and founder of the Azerbaijan state.


    Aliyeva Zarifa Aziz gizi (28.04.1923, Shahtakhti village of Kangarli region – 15.04.1985 Moscow)– ophthalmologist. Doctor of science (1979), professor (1979), academician of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (1983), academician of the Russia Medical Academy of Sciences (1981), the Honoured Scientist of the Azerbaijan Republic (1980), the daughter of A.M.Aliyev, the wife of Heydar Aliyev. She graduated from the Azerbaijan State Medical Institute (at present Medical University) (1974). She began to work a scientific worker at the Azerbaijan Scientific–Research Ophthalmology Institute, from 1969 she worked a senior lecturer, professor, chief of the professional pathology laboratory of the sight organs, chief of the chair of ophthalmology (1982-85) at Azerbaijan Doctors Training Institute named after A.Aliyev. Zarifa Aliyeva has an exceptional contribution in developing the science of ophthalmology in Azerbaijan. She is one of the authors of very rare scientific works, of which “Therapeutical Ophthalmology”, “Fundamental of iridodiagnostics”, 12 monograhies text-books and educational supplies, around 150 scientific works, 1 invention and 12 rationalization proposals that covered the treatment of a wide spread trachoma in Azerbaijan that time, studying, prophylactics and treatment of the eye disease related with the chemical and electronic industries profession activity, which was one of the first in the world practice and also works about the modern problems of ophthalmology. Zarifa Aliyeva was the founder of the Azerbaijan iridology and established a scientific school in this filed.

    The monographies of “The physiology of eyes tears”, “The treatment of eyes tear with modern operations” dealing with the doctriology of Zarifa Aliyeva were received highly not only by the ophthalmologists but also physiologists. Her rich and hard won pedagogical, scientific and practical experience were resembled in the monography of “The actual questions of the ophthalmology” (together with prof. N.B.Shulpina and L.F.Moshetova). This book is an unexampled educational supply for the teachers of the ophthalmologist and doctors training faculty.                   

    Zarifa Aliyeva did her best in preparing very qualified medical personnels. She was a member of the Presidium of All-Union Ophthalmologists Society, the Soviet Peace Defence Committee, the Administrative Personnel of the Azerbaijan Ophthalmologist Society, member of the editorial board of the journal “Ophthalmologist of Vestnic” (Moscow). She was awarded with the prestiged M.I.Averbakh prize of the Medical Academy of Sciences of the USSR for her greatest scientific achievements (1981). In 1994 her corpse was taken from the cemetery of Novo Deviche of Moscow to Baki and was buried in the Honorary Avenue, at the grave of her father. Her bronze monument was erected on her grave. (Sculpter O.Eldarov). The institute of the Eyes diseases in Baki, Nakhchivan city polyclinic and the school in Shahtakhti village of Kangarli region bear the name of Zarifa Aliyeva. A rest park was constructed after her name in the area of Binagadi district of Baki.


    Talibov Vasif Usif oglu ( на русском ) (b. 14.1.1960 Ashagi Aralig village, Sharur District) is a public official and chairman of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic Supreme Assembly. He graduated from the Faculty of History and Philology of Nakhchivan State Pedagogical Institute (1981) and the Law Faculty of Baku State University (1998). He started his activity in the Sharur District Public Education Department in 1976 and later worked as the Cadres Inspector (1982) and chief of the special department at the Nakhchivan Knitted Good Factory. While working and studying, he continued participation in active life as an intellectual, and his faith in his native land and people was indestructible. He was one of the front-rank adherents of the struggle aimed at bringing the people’s national savior Haydar Aliyev back as leader of Azerbaijan in order to archive the ultimate goal of carrying out reforms for the building of a new Azerbaijan, the protection of the district’s territorial integrity and the establishment of democratic values in the country. Vasif Talibov has in fact benefited from being nearby the wise leader Haydar Aliyev and has been his close brother-in-arms, taking an active part in pursuing reforms. Vasif Talibov worked in the position of Senior Assistant of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic Supreme Assembly from September 1991 until April 1994 and First Deputy for Foreign Economic Links of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic Prime Minister from April 1994 until December 1995. He was actively engaged in the creation and organizational formation of the New Azerbaijan Party (NAP) founded by the national leader of Azerbaijan, Haydar Aliyev. Elected the chairman of the NAP Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic organization at its conference held on April 8, 1995, Vasif Talibov is also a party figure. He realizes his activity on NAP’s governing authority, which is the leading political force of Azerbaijan society. On 12 November 1995, 5 November 2000 and 6 November 2005, he was elected a deputy of the Azerbaijani Republic National Assembly for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd sessions, a deputy of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic Supreme Assembly for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd sessions, and the chairman of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic Supreme Assembly at the first session of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic Supreme Assembly held accordingly on 16 December 1995, 7 December 2000 and 28 November 2005. Worthily fulfilling the important position, Vasif Talibov is effectively operating on the adoption of the corresponding laws for implementation of the measures aimed at the establishment of civic society and legal state in Azerbaijan, further improvement of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic’s economy and culture, as well as the improvement of national welfare based on the political course set by Haydar Aliyev. Above all, he has skillfully solved the problems linked with the maintenance and strengthening of the territorial integrity of this area, which is of essential value for the republic.  

                The building, construction and reconstruction activities realized in the autonomous republic are closely linked with the names of national leader of the Azerbaijani people Haydar Aliyev, the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev, who is successfully continuing his father’s line, as well as the chairman of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic Supreme Assembly Vasif Talibov. 

                Vasif Talibov’s entire activity is directly related to the considerable political, public and cultural processes taking place in Azerbaijan, as well as its integral part, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. Normal relations have been established and several agreements have been signed with the neighboring foreign states of the Republic of Turkey and the Islamic Republic of Iran due to the purposeful activity on his initiative. Such relations have been extensively helpful in the further advancement of free trade and economic links, as well as the development of science, education and culture in Nakhchivan.  

                From 1995 to 2005, around 100 modern general education schools were built in the Autonomous Republic’s cities and villages, new education buildings were constructed at the Nakhchivan State University, Nakhchivan Teachers’ Institute and Nakhchivan Private University, as well as buildings for the Nakhchivan Branch of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, and six scientific research institutes commenced their activity. At the same time, cultural and educational establishments, sport centers and administrative buildings were built in the Autonomous Republic’s cities and villages, in particular the city of Nakhchivan.  

                Many historical-architectural monuments of Nakhchivan, including the Momine Khatun Sepulcher, Garabaghlar Vault Complex, Yusif Kusеyr oghlu Vault, Khan’s House, Buzkhana, Imamzadeh Sanctuary Complex, Alinjechay Khanegah Complex, Ismayilkhan Bath-House, etc., have been overhauled and restored to the highest level. The home-museums of J.Nakhchivanskii, H.Javid, M.S.Ordubadi, J.Mammadguluzadeh and Y.Mammadaliyev have been reconstructed. Bahruz Kangarli’s name has been perpetuated and his home-museum has been built. The 150th jubilee of the distinguished pedagogue, educationalist and poet M.T.Sidgi has been celebrated, his plays published and his memory perpetuated. A monumental sepulcher has been erected in memory of H.Javid. 

                The international symposium “Nakhchivan in the international sources” (10-13.07.1996), held under Vasif Talibov’s leadership, has played a vital role in the objective study of Nakhchivan’s history from the standpoint of the people’s national interests. In reply to the baseless territorial claims of Armenian chauvinists in regards to Nakhchivan, the Supreme Assembly of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic conducted an international scientific symposium together with the Azerbaijan National academy of Sciences, A.A.Bakichanov Institude of History, and the Academy’s Nakhchivan Branch and Nakhchivan State University (9-10.06.2006). Over 50 reports were given at the symposium attended by Turkish and Iranian scientists as well. In addition, the international symposium “Natural Resources of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and Ways for Their More effective Usage” was held (14-16.09.2000). 

                Vasif Talibov has signed a special decree regarding the study of the Gamigaya complex of historic-ethnographic monuments (26.04.2001), which is proof in stone that the land of Nakhchivan belongs to the Azerbaijani people. In accordance with this decree, archeological-ethnographical expeditions to the Gamigaya are arranged every year. 

                Vasif Talibov was elected a member of the Coordinating Council at the 1st Congress of Azerbaijanis Worldwide (November 9-10, 2001 Baku). Under the leadership of Vasif Talibov a new two volume “Encyclopedia of Nakhchivan” was published.   


    Nakhchivani Ajami Abubakr oglu (the 20th years of the XII century–end of the XII century) –architect. The prominent figure of the Azerbaijan architecture. The founder of the Nakhchivan architectural schooling. It was Ajami who gave a new direction to the Middle Age of the Azerbaijan architecture, brought great tenderness and dynamic to the difficult and sharp style of the Saljugs period architecture with his handicraft greatness and influenced strongly to the Near East architecture. The descriptive work of the craftsman who called himself “Abubakr oglu Ajami, architecture from Nakhchivan” in the inscriptions of the monuments created by him and his engineering which made parallel with architecture is vividly seen. The great genius figures of the East called him “Sheykhul-muhəndis” (Master of engineers).

    The activity of Ajami linked with Nakhchivan, the capital of the powerful Azerbaijan Atabaylar state in the XII century. That time vast construction works were held in Nakhchivan which was situated in the trade roads junction of international importance and handicraft center of Azerbaijan.

    The first known monument of Ajami is the monument of Usif Kuseyir oglu. The tomb which is situated in the center of Nakhchivan and which is known as “Atababa dome” was built in 1162. The monument consisting of the octagon body, tower like dome, counterforts in the corners was built of brick and the walls were designed with the assembled geometrical ornaments. The techtonics (architectonics) of architecture made harmony with artistry in this monument. In the inscription put on the left side of the entrance door the name of the architect was written: “The work of Ajami Abubakr oglu Nakhchivani, builder”. The Momuna Khatun tomb, being considered one of the highest monuments with the finest composition not only in Azerbaijan but also in the Islamic world was erected by Ajami in 1186 in the Western part of Nakhchivan. This tomb better known as “Atabay dome” was erected to the honour of Momuna Khatun, the wife of Atabay Shamsaddin Eldaniz, the mother of Mahammad Jahan Pahlavan. The monument was the dominant of a great architectural complex with its big sizes, monumental shape and dynamic silhouette. The ten pointed Momuna Kahtun tomb, established on the basis of the architectural principles extention and complication, is the monumental monument. The tomb is an unexampled art work for its downground structure, for the completion of the architectural divisions parting these surfaces with the outerior surfaces and also for the geometric ornaments compiling. Ajami built the ornaments of the Momuna Khatun tomb with the complicated designs resembling the geometrical systems by bringing parallels the Cufic inscriptions with the ornament designs he was able to suit it to the general composition of the monument.

    One more monument of Ajami belonging to the XII century, consists of the double minaret and the portal joining them. This monument, including Momuna Khatun tomb too, is the entrance part of a big architectural complex. The Juma Mosque of Nakhchivan “Darulmulk” whose name is called in the sources –the palace of Eldanizlar and “Dovlatkhana” (Government House) building included to this complex and remained separated till the XX century are the examples of Ajami work.

    Ajami activity influenced the architecture of Azerbaijan and the Near East countries. Ajami tradition is vividly seen in the Green dome in Maragha (1196), the Gulustan tomb in Nakhchivan (XIII century), the Garabaghlar tomb (XII-XIV century), the tombs of Barda and Salmas (XIV century), in the tombs built in Istanbul by the Turkish architect Sinan (XVI century). When building the monument on the grave of Nizami in Ganja in 1926 the tradition of Ajami was used and the tomb of Nizami was built on the basis of Ajami style. The architectural tradition of Ajami is clearly seen in the pedestal of the Nizami monument erected in Baki, in the tomb of Vagif in Shusha, in the tomb of Husein Javid in Nakhchivan. The popular art-critic from Australia Ernest Dits stated that the tombs built by Sinan in Istanbul were created under the influence of the Nakhchivan tombs. Sinan as a military engineer came to Nakhchivan during his Iran visit in 1535-36 years and saw the architectural schooling of Ajami.

    The activity of Ajami is one of the bright reflections of the XII century Azerbaijan culture and public opinion renaissance. The fineness in his monuments, the structure of his architectural divisions, the playfulness of the ornament designs are the result of the artistic thinking unframed to the Middle Age notion. His ornament compositions base on artistry and unity of the mathematical thought.

    Ajami was the engineer and craftsman who found the solution of the techtonics (architectonics) being one of the key problems of the architectural work, which was come across very seldom in the world architecture. His great engineering ability is seen in the nuerver spans systems of the vault of the Momuna Khatun tomb and in the completion of the arches ornaments prepared architectural century before the Western Europe architecture, in the giant dome of the Juma Mosque and in the double minarets.


    Nakhchivani Hindushah (1245, Giran-1328,?) –historian, linguist, philosopher, writer, translator, poet, secretary, statesman. He studied in the Mustansariyya madrasa of Baghdad.

           Hindushah Nakhchivani was the ruler substitutor of his brother Seyfaddovla Amir Mahmud, the ruler of Kashan in 1275 and later he worked the architectural teacher in the Mustansariyya madrasa. In 1289 he made the copy of “Jame ad-dagaig fi kashf al-hagaig” of Najmaddin Katibi for the madrasa use. At the end of the century he worked in the financial system, became a ruler of several provinces, became a great statesman and was given a penname “Fakhr ad-dovla”. He made a close friendship with the son of Alaaddin Atamalik Guveyn and in respect to Guveyni he received the title of “Sahibi”. Hindushah Nakhchivani knew the Turkish, Arabic, Persian and also Pahlavi (Middle Persian) languages perfectly well and his great outlook, farsightedness, literary taste drew the attention of people. He also was busy with philosophy, astrology, mathematics and other sciences and did translations. He created the most splendid samples of perfect and beautiful prose in Persian as his contemporary Sadi Shirazi did. Only some works of H.Nakhchivani reached our period. The anthology “Mavarid-al arab” written in Arabic was completed in 1307, in Tabriz. His work “Tajarub al-salaf” (The experiences of the followers) dealing with the lives, periods, their vezirs of the Arabic Caliphs (56 Caliphs), the history of Amavilar, Abbasilar and Saljugilar was completed in 1324 and was dedicated to Nasraddin Ahmad ibn Usif shah (1295-1330), Great Lur Atabay. The work “Tajarub al-salaf” is factually known as the Persian translation of the work “Al Fakhr” of Ibn Tagtag, the Arabic scientist. But by perfect translation of that work into Perisan Nakhchivani  threw out some parts of it, did a lot of additions and extended the work and as a result of which made its volume thrice more compared with its Arabic variant. In the work “Tajarub al-salaf” which is said to be the most perfect work written in Persian, the information is given about Nakhchivan, side by side with the stock of the author, himself, Shamsaddin Guveyni  and other prominent figures as well. The author states that Giran belonged to the Nakhchivan tuman but Vanand village to Giran and it also is stated that  a very suitable Khanagah was built by Shamsaddin Mahammad Guveyni (1225-83) in Vanand and properties were shared for it. His missing Nakhchivan once again proves that H.Nakhchivani was from this land. The author wishing power and health from God desires to be in Nashava (Nakhchivan) again. The work “Sihah ul-ajam” of H. Nakhchivani is the dictionary of Persian–Azerbaijani. The dictionary consisting of 21 parts and 393 chapters includes 3 parts–introduction (in Arabic), dictionary and grammar of Persian (in Arabic). About 10000 Azerbaijani words expressing the most Persian words (5117) and their equalency were given in comparison with other dictionaries. The work is the valuable source in learning the lexics and grammar of the XIII-XIV Azerbaijan and also Persian languages.



    Nasraddin Tusi (17.2.1201-Tus-25.6.1274 Baghdad)–encyclopaedist scientist, philosopher, public-political figure. Tusi is his surname but Nasraddin (religion follower) is his pen-name. He also was known with the nicknames Abu Abdulla, substituter of Mahammad or Abu Jafar. He also was named Khaja (Mister) of which Movla of the same meaning. He received his primary education from his father and uncle and then studied different fields of the humanity and exact sciences deeply in Khorasan. Nasraddin Tusi was permitted by Muniaddin Salim Misri to deliver hedis (religious view of the imams) in 30.6.1222.

    Nasraddin Tusi went to Isfahan by the invitation of Nasraddin Mohtasham, Kuhistan ruler, one of the leaders of the Ismaililar and was welcomed warmly. But as a result of the conflicts occurred between them the existing trust to Nasraddin Tusi went down and he lived in the Alamut fortress, as if in prison. Nasraddin Tusi was freed just thereafter Hulaku Khan’s victory over the Ismaililar in 1256 and was appointed the advisor for himself. The scientist was known for his wise measures who participated in conquering of Baghdad and especially he took a great care of the intellectuals and was able to save their lives. About 500 families who had left Maragha and Tabriz returned back thanks to his activity.

    One of the most important contributions in the world scientific and cultural history of Nasraddin Tusi is the establishment of the Maragha Observatory in 1259. He gathered more than 100 members of different nations to the observatory and created a normal atmosphere for their working. In the madrasa, under the authority of the observatory, all kinds of knowledges related to that period including scientific, religious, philosophic and public-political branches were learned. The madrasa obtained more than 400 thousand volumes of rich library. Nasraddin Tusi died in his Baghdad visit and according to his testament he was buried in the holy Kazimeyn city. It is interesting that the vault where he was buried was prepared for the Caliph Nasir li-Dinillah about 75 years, 7 months and 7 days before Nasraddin Tusi’s birth but for some unknown reasons it was left empty.

    The three sons of Nasraddin Tusi – Sadraddin Ali, Asiladdin Hasan and Fakhraddin Ahmad followed the scientific way and in the same time worked in the official works. Avhadi Maraghayi (1274-1338) dedicated his “Dahnama” masnavi (1306) to Khaja Ziyaaddin Usif Asiladdin oglu Hasan, the grandson of Nasraddin Tusi. The people from the generation of Nasraddin Tusi later lived in the territory of Nakhchivan and were popular in the field of science, literature and art. The information about Nasraddin Tusi generation living in the Ordubad region and for this Shah Abbas the First (1587-1629) exempting the region of Ordubad from all taxes was engraved in the inscription on the entrance door of the Juma Mosque built in the XVII century in Ordubad.

    The personal outlook of Nasraddin Tusi was reflected in his tractates about religion, philosophy, policy and ethics. In the works “The tractate about Imamat” (Risala fil-imama) and some different works of the thinker belonging to the Shiah sector the specific features not only 12 Shiah imams but in general all positive characters specific for the imams are put forward. Nasraddin Tusi in his “Algebra and destiny” tractate considered positively the will freedom of  human. Both the Shiahs and Sunnets contributed from the works of the thinker who was far from the sector protection. In his tractates about philosophy Nasraddin Tusi shared places for the book of Ibn Sina “The solution of problems” (“Hall al-Mush kilat”) dedicated to the commentary of the book “Signs and notes”, “The isolation of a word” (“Tajrid al-kalam”), “The base of loaning” (Asas al-iqtibas). There is the manuscript of the tractate “The solution of problems” belonging to the XIII-XVII centuries in the Institute of Manuscripts named after Fuzuli of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Nasraddin Tusi was a prominent follower of the Ibn Sina and Bahmanyar schooling and promoted our Eastern peripatetic.

    The ethic and public-political views of Nasraddin Tusi mainly was reflected in the work “Akhlagi-Nasir” written in honour of Nasraddin Mohtasham in 1235. In this work where a place was shared for the general philosophic problems, the different aspects of characters, good and sinful features are studied, the features making people perfect, the ways leading to goodness and happiness are stated. In the administrative theory of Nasraddin Tusi who directs the attention to the human and community relations, analyses himself, family and state administration and considers the administration of people very important according to “justice, honest and wisdom” laws. Nasraddin Tusi demonstrated his humanism in the works about figha (Moslem right) and regarded the stability and peaceful condition of the people very important. He is also the author of the tractates of musical theory and music and inclusively philosophic poems. The wide outlook, wide range philosophic understanding and so progressive ethic and public-political views, also his thoughts about theology sound well, even today and call the attention of mankind.

    The 780th jubilee of Nasraddin Tusi was marked widely in 1981, a medal was instituted to his honour, monuments were erected to him, his portrait was painted (The People’s Artist Najafgulu). Several scientific, educational and cultural-educational enterprises of the Azerbaijan Republic of which, the Astrophisics Observatory of Shamakhi of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, streets were named after Nasraddin Tusi. By the decision of UNESCO his 800th jubilee was marked all over the world. On this occasion by the decision of Heydar Aliyev,  president of the Azerbaijan Republic signed on June 13, 2000 “About the 800th jubilee of Nasraddin Tusi” a jubilee committee was organized and his jubilee was celebrated.


    Naimi (about 1339/40-1394) –thinker, poet. He laid the foundation of the Hurufism sector in the Near and Middle East of the Middle Ages. He gave an explanation to the main propositions of pantheism which constitutes the philosophic base of the Hurufism in the “Javidani-Sagir”, “Mahabbatnama”, “Arshnama” tractates and partially in the work of “Novmnama” (About dreams) and in his “Divan”. His masterpiece is “Javidani-Kabir” (“Javidnama”). The Hurifis believed that Allah was reflected in the personality of Fazlullah and as he resembled Allah on the Earth planet, he would be able to overcome all kinds of injustice. For the information in the sources as Naimi carried out the propaganda of the Hurifism and as always came out against the policy of power he was prosecuted till the Alinja fortress and by the order of Amir Temer Naimi was detained by Miranshah, son of Temer, and was executed in the Alinja fortress.



    Kangarli Ehsan Khan Kalbali Khan oglu (?, Nakhchivan -?, there) –The last Khan of Nakhchivan. He is the son of Kalbali Khan Kangarli, the father of Ismail Khan Nakhchivanski, Kalbali Khan Nakhchivanski and Goncha bayim. He was one of the army chiefs of the Abbasabad garrison duting the Russia –Iran war in 1826-28 but the colonel of the Iran army Ehsan Khan Kangarli took the side of the Russians and helped them in taking the fortress. According to the historical sources Ehsan Khan Kangarli headed the troop of ten thousand considering of Nakhchivanis and Russians. Ehsan Khan Kangarli who was awarded with the highest military rank major-general thereafter joining Azerbaijan to Russia signed the Turkmenchay treaty (1828) as an authorized member the Iravan and Nakhchivan Khanate and Ordubad province and as soon as was abolished he became the first ruler of the Nakhchivan province. Ehsan Khan paid great attention to the construction works and world-wide education. He made dig springs in Cheshmabasar village, delivered water to Nehram from under the tunnel of the hill and opened the first Rus-Tatar (Azerbaijan) uyezd school in Nakhchivan. In 1840 he refused from ruling under the condition of heading a cavalry. Later he also bravely fought in the Crimea war (1853-56). He was awarded with the “Saint George” order. When A.Bakikhanov and A.S.Griboyedov visited Iran they were guested in the palace of Ehsan Khan Kangarli which is stated in the “Iravan marching” road notes. The name of Ehsan Khan Kangarli was written in golden letter in the George salon of the Kremlin.


    Nakhchivanski Kalbali Khan Ehsan oglu (1824, Nakhchivan -1.5.1883, there) –army figure. Major-general (1874). He is the son of the last Nakhchivan Khan Ehsan Khan Kangarli, brother of Ismayil Khan Nakhchivanski. He was sent to the Paj corps school in his 14 which belonged to the aristocrat children in Petersburg but a sudden disease made him return back to Nakhchivan. After treatment he volunterly took part in the march of Daghistan and for his braveness he was promoted to the rank of officer. In the Crimea war (1853-56) he fought bravely and he was appointed a commander to the Gusar leyb-guard regiment in 1855. Nakhchivanski demonstrated great braveness after being appointed a commander of the Iravan cavalry brigade of Azerbaijanis in the Russian–Turkish war in 1877-78. Nakhchivanski who had a very high prestige among people played an important role in the public–political and cultural life of Nakhchivan. He was awarded with the third-class “Saint Stanislav” order and two “Saint                                George” orders and also with the sword decorated with diamond.